Clear Goals
  • Give players purpose
  • Know what they’re aiming for at the end of the journey
  • Satisfaction in achieving


Consistency in the World and its Rules

  • Give players a rounded and coherent ‘conceptual model’ of the world –  what they expect to happen will happen
  • Know that the world and the way it’s presented is reassuringly consistent and predictable
  • Constantly guided through the laws of logical, yet magical world


Rewards for Positive Interactions

  • Give players praise/reward/encouragement for everything that’s correct
  • Know they’re doing the right thing
  • Constantly rewarded and encouraged to continue achieving

Clear, Proportional and Consistent Feedback

  • Give players clear feedback to whatever they’ve done (however small the step)
  • Know that world is predictable and actions have appropriate consequences: cause and effect
  • Aware what has an effect and how big that effect is

Opportunities for Experimentation and “Playground” Interactivity

  • Give players enough options to discover that experimentation is possible, rewarded and therefore encouraged
  • Know that making your own fun and playing around always gets you somewhere
  • Constantly reminded that there’s more to do than just the main path

Choices that are Clear and Meaningful

  • Choices are presented to players that give greater reward for actions that are riskier, more complex or tactically advantageous
  • Know that more sophisticated play and risk-taking are options that will have gains
  • Experimenting all the time, trying different methods and exploring game depth

Clear Direction

  • Give players unambiguous guidance
  • Know where to go/what to do along the route of the journey
  • Constantly making progress

Intuitive, Smooth Controls

  • Give players controls to assist them in what they are trying to achieve – nothing is clumsy or confusing
  • Know that controls are there to help players achieve goals
  • Aware that the only barriers are players’ own skill in dealing with the obstacles presented

Clear Pacing and Narrative

  • Give drama, context and rhythm
  • Know “story” and be engaged in it
  • Experience is meaningful, not spurious

Progression, Variety and Challenge

  • Give something new to do/achieve
  • Know that there’s always something new coming up
  • Constantly encouraged to keep playing

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